CARE (relief agency)

CARE ( Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere , formerly Cooperative for American Remittances to Europe [1] ) is a major international humanitarian agency providing emergency relief and long-term international development projects. Founded in 1945, CARE is nonsectarian , impartial, and non-governmental . It is one of the largest humanitarian organizations in the world. [2] In 2016, CARE reported working in 94 countries, supporting 962 poverty -fighting projects and humanitarian aid projects, and reaching over 80 million people and 256 million people indirectly.[3]

CARE’s programs in the Developing World to address broad ranks of topics Including emergency response , food security , water and sanitation , economic development , climate change, agriculture , education , and health . CARE also advocates at the local, national, and international levels for policy change and the rights of poor people. Within each of these areas, CARE focuses particularly on empowering and meeting the needs of women and girls and promoting gender equality . [3]

CARE International is a confederation of fourteen CARE National Members contents, each of qui is registered as an autonomous non-profit non-governmental organization in the country. The fourteen CARE National Members are CARE Australia, CARE Canada, CARE Denmark, CARE Deutschland-Luxembourg, CARE France, CARE India, CARE International Japan, CARE Nederland, CARE Norge, CARE Österreich, Raks Thai Foundation (CARE Thailand), CARE International UK , CARE USA, and CARE Peru. Programs in developing countries are usually managed by a Country Office, but they also do not need to maintain a full Country Office. [3]

History

1945-1949: Origins and the CARE Package

CARE, then the Cooperative for American Remittances to Europe, [4] was formally founded on November 27, 1945, and was originally intended to be a temporary organization. [5] World War IIhad ended in August of the same year. President Harry S. Truman, President of the United States. [6] CARE Was INITIALLY a consortium of twenty-two American charities (a mixture of civic , religious, cooperative , farm, and labor organisms ) with the purpose of Delivering food aid to Europe in the aftermath of World War II. [7] The organization delivered its first food packages in 1946. [4]

CARE Packages , which were at first delivered to specific individuals: Americans paid $ 10 to send a CARE Package of food to a loved one in Europe, often a family member. President Truman bought the first CARE package. [8] : p.1 CARE guaranteed delivery in the United States, even if they had left their last known address, and returned a signed delivery receipt to the sender. [9] Because European postal services were unreliable at the time, these receipts were first confirmed that the recipient had survived the war. [7]

The first CARE Packages were in fact surplus “Ten-in-One” US Army rations packs (designed to contain a day’s meals for ten people). [5] In early 1946 CARE purchased 2.8 million of these warehoused rations packs, originally intended for the invasion of Japan , and began advertising in America. On May 11, 1946, six months after the agency’s incorporation, the first CARE Packages were delivered in Le Havre , France. [7] These packages contained staples Such as canned meats, powdered milk , dried fruits , and fats along with a FEW comfort items Such as chocolate ,coffee , and cigarettes . (Several on the CARE Board of Directors Wished to remove the cigarettes, drank It was deemed impractical to open and reseal 2.8 million boxes.) [7] 1946 aussi marked CARE’s first expansion out of the US with the establishment of an office in Canada . [10]

By early 1947 the supply of “Ten-in-One” ration packs had been exhausted and CARE began assembling its own packages. [5] These new packages were designed with the help of a nutritionist. They Did not include cigarettes and Were Somewhat tailored by destination: Kosher packages Were Developed, and for example packages for the United Kingdom included tea Rather than coffee, and packages for Italy included pasta . By 1949 CARE offered and shipped more than 12 different packages. [5]

Whether or not the subject has not been included, but rather has not been included in the past. [7] : p.18 These unspecified donations continued and in early 1948 CARE ‘s Board of Directors voted in favor of more general relief. Some founding member agencies disagreed with this shift, arguing That raised more general Would Be a duplication of the work of other agencies, aims Donors reacted favourably, Increased contributions, and this decision Would Mark The Beginning of CARE’s shift Towards a Broader mandate. [5]

Between the first deliveries of 1946 and the last European deliveries of 1956, millions of CARE Packages were distributed throughout Europe, over 50% of them to Germany [10] including many delivered as part of the Berlin airlift in response to the 1948 Soviet blockade of Berlin . [7]

The US Agricultural Act of 1949 made surplus US agricultural products available through the US Government or by NGOs including CARE. [7] In 1954 Public Law 480 , also known as the Food for Peace Act, further expanded the availability of US food aid. [5] This act allowed CARE to expand icts feeding programs and disaster Relief operations considerably, and entre 1949 and 2009 CARE used Hundreds of millions of dollars’ worth of surplus commodities in disaster Relief programs and Such As school lunch provision. [7]

1949-1956: Transition out of Europe

Although the organization’s mission was originally focused on Europe, in July 1948 CARE opened its first non-European mission, in Japan . [5] Deliveries to China and Korea followed, which CARE described as helping to areas “implicated by WWII”. [11] : p.119 In 1949 CARE entered the developing world for the first time, launching programs in the Philippines . Projects in India , Pakistan , and Mexico began soon after. [7]1949 also marked CARE’s first expansion into non-food aid with the development of “self-help” packages containing tools for farming, carpentry, and other trades. [5] In 1953, because of its expansion to projects outside Europe, CARE has changed the meaning of its acronym to “Cooperative for American Remittances to Everywhere”. [5]

As Europe recovered economically, CARE faced the need to re-evaluate its mission: in 1955, several Board members argued that with the European recovery CARE’s mandate is finished and the organization should dissolve. Other Board members however felt that CARE’s mission should continue with a new focus on the developing world. [11] In July 1955 CARE projects outside of Europe. Paul French , CARE’s executive director at the time, resigned over the debate. New executive director Richard W. Reuter took over in 1955 and helped lead the organization in a new direction. [12]Twenty-two of CARE’s forty-two missions have been closed, mostly in European countries, and have been focused on food distribution and emergency response in the developing world. [5] In 1956 CARE distributed food to refugees of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 , and this would be among the last of CARE’s operations in Europe for many years. [7]

1957-1975: Transition into a broader development work

With a broadened geographic focus came a broadened approach as CARE began to expand beyond its original food distribution program. In 1959 CARE changed the meaning of its acronym to second time, becoming the “Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere”. [5] Reflecting this broadened scope, CARE became involved in 1961 with President John F. Kennedy’sestablishment of the Peace Corps . CARE was charged with selecting and training the first group of volunteers, who would be deployed in Colombia. Peace Corps Volunteers in the Missions of the Peace Corps continued, but CARE continued to provide guidance to the Peace Corps until CARE-Peace Corps joint projects ended in 1967. [5]

In 1962 CARE merged with and absorbed the MEDICO medical aid agency, which it had been working for several years previously. The merger has increased CARE’s ability to deliver health programming, including trained medical personnel and medical supplies. [5]

During this transition the original CARE Package was phased out. [5] The last package Food Was Delivered in 1967 and the last tools package in 1968. [13] Over 100 million CARE Packages HAD beens Delivered worldwide since the first shipment to France. [14] Although 1968 marked the official “retirement” of the CARE Package the format would occasionally be used again, for example in CARE’s relief to the republics of the Soviet Union and the survivors of the Bosnian War . [15] The concept was also revived in 2011 as an online campaign to a “virtual CARE Package” with food aid and services. [16]

1967 also marked CARE’s first partnership agreement with a government: for the construction of schools in Honduras . Partnership agreements with governments to become more specific. CARE’s programs during this period focused largely on the construction of schools and nutrition centers, and the continued distribution of food. Nutrition centers in particular would be one of CARE’s major areas of concentration, linking with school feeding programs and nutrition education aimed at new mothers. [5]

In 1975 CARE implemented a multi-year planning system, again allowing programs to become both broader and deeper in scope. Projects have become more multi-faceted, providing for example, not only health, but also access to clean water and an agricultural program to improve nutrition. The multi-year planning system also increased the scope for country-wide projects and partnerships with local governments. A 1977 project for example provided for the construction of over 200 pre-schools and kindergartens throughout Chile , jointly funded by CARE and the Chilean Ministry of Education . [5]

1975-1990: From CARE to CARE International

Although CARE had opened in Canada in 1946, it was not until the mid-1970s that the organization became international. [10] CARE Canada (originally Care of Canada) became an autonomous body in 1973. In 1976 CARE Europe was established in Bonn following the successful fund-raising campaign “Dank an CARE” (Thanks to CARE). In 1981 CARE Germany was created and CARE Europe moved to its headquarters in Paris . [5] CARE Norway had been created in 1980, [17] and CAREs in Italy and the UK were established. The popularity of CARE offices in Europe was attributed to the fact that many Europeans remembered receiving CARE assistance themselves between 1945 and 1955. [5]

In 1979 planning began for the establishment of an umbrella organization to coordinate and prevent duplication among the various national CARE organizations. CARE Canada, CARE Germany, CARE Norway, and CARE USA (formerly CARE) in attendance. [5]

CARE International would expand significantly during the 1980s, with the addition of CARE France in 1983; [18] CARE International UK in 1985; [19] CARE Austria in 1986; [20] and CARE Australia, CARE Denmark, and CARE Japan in 1987. [21] [22] [23]

1990-present: Recent history

Along with broader development work CARE’s projects in the 1980s and early 1990s focused on agroforestry initiatives such as reforestation and soil conservation in eastern Africa and South America . CARE also responded to this issue, notably the 1983-1985 famine in Ethiopia and the 1991-1992 famine in Somalia . [5]

The 1990s also saw an evolution in CARE’s approach to poverty. Originally CARE had had a primary role in food and sanitation, clean water, and health care. As CARE’s scope has been expanded geographically and topically this approach has been expanded to include the viewpoint of social exclusion , marginalization, and discrimination . In the early 1990s CARE adopted a household livelihood security framework which included a multidimensional view of poverty as encompassing not only physical resources but also social position and human capacities. As a result of this, by 2000, CARE had adopted a rights-based approach to development . [14]

One of their buildings was attacked, and people were killed and wounded, during the September 2016 Kabul attacks .

Microfinance

In the early 1990s CARE also developed what would become an important model for cooperative microfinance .

This model is called the Village Savings and Loan Associations (VSLAs) and it began in 1991 as a pilot project run by CARE ‘s Country Office in Niger . [24] The pilot project was called Mata Masu Dubara (MMD) and CARE Niger developed the VSLA model by adapting the model of Accumulating Savings and Credit Associations(ASCAS). VSLAs involve groups of 15-30 people who regularly save and borrow using a group fund. Savings savings create create create create savings savings </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> </s>,,,,,,,,,,,,,, . Because the bookkeeping is required to manage a VSLA is quite simple. [25] CARE has created over 40,000 VSLAs across Africa, Asia, and Latin America [24] and in 2008 launched Access Africa VSLA Training to 39 African Countries by 2018. [26]

The model has been widely disseminated in Africa and Asia by NGOs such as Oxfam , Plan International , and Catholic Relief Services . [27]

CARE UK opens the door with care , which allows members of the public to make microloans , including green loans, to entrepreneurs in Africa and Asia. It avoids many of the criticisms at Kiva.org .

Acronym redefinition and 50th anniversary

In 1993 CARE, to reflect its international organizational structure, changed the meaning of its acronym for a third time, adopting its current name “Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere”. CARE also marked its 50th anniversary in 1994. [14]

CARE expanded the confederation to twelve members in the early 2000s, with CARE Netherlands (formerly the Disaster Relief Agency) joining in 2001 [28] and CARE Thailand (called the Raks Thai Foundation) joining in 2003, becoming CARE National Member in a developing country. [29]

CARE’s well-known “I am Powerful” campaign launched in the USA in September 2006 and was intended to bring public attention to the organization’s long-standing focus on women’s empowerment . [14] CARE states that its programs focus on women and girls both because the world is disproportionately female and because women’s empowerment is an important driver of development. CARE also emphasizes that it considers working with men and women an important part of women’s empowerment, and that women’s empowerment benefits both. [3]

In 2007 CARE announced that by 2009 it would no longer accept certain types of US food aid worth $ 45 million a year, arguing that these types of food are inefficient and harmful to local markets. [30] [31] SPECIFICALLY, CARE annoncé That It Would Forego all monetized food aid (surplus US food shipped to charities in the Developing World Who Then sell the food on the local market to finance development projects) [31] and all food aid It is intended to establish a commercial advantage for the donor, and would increase its commitment to buying food locally. [32] CARE also announced that it would no longer accept USDA food through Title 1(concessional sales) or Section 416 (surplus disposal) because these programs are intended primarily to establish a commercial advantage for US agriculture. [32]

In 2011 CARE added its first Affiliate Member, CARE India, and in 2012 the CI board accepted CARE Peru as CARE ‘s second Affiliate Member. [3] CARE India became a full member in November 2013. The CI board accepted CARE Peru as a full member of the confederation in June 2015.

Currently CARE is one of the only major NGOs to make Their database of project evaluations Availability of annual, and to Regularly conduct a meta-analysis of valuation methodologies and overall organizational impact. [33] [34]

Presidents of CARE

Clarence Picket, temporary chairman 1945 [35]

Murray Lincoln , President 1945 – 1957 [35]

Harold S. Miner, President 1957 – 1978 [36]

CARE today

CARE currently takes care of a variety of issues, that range from cleaning up disaster strikes to working with AIDS.

CARE’s structure

CARE International is a confederation of four CARE National Members, coordinated by the CARE International Secretariat. The Secretariat is based in Geneva , Switzerland , with offices in New York and in Brussels in order to liaise with the United Nations and the European institutions respectively. [37]

Each CARE is a member of the CARE National Executive Committee, which operates in the United States and Canada. There are fourteen National Members. The fourteen CARE National Members are: [37]

CARE National and Affiliate Members
CARE Member Joined the confederation as of: website
CARE Australia 1987 [21] www.care.org.au
CARE Canada 1946 [5] www.care.ca
Chrysalis Sri Lanka * 2017 http://chrysaliscatalyz.com/
CARE Danmark 1987 [22] www.care.dk
CARE Deutschland-Luxemburg 1981 [5] www.care.de
CARE Egypt * 2017 www.care.org.eg/
CARE France 1983 [18] www.carefrance.org
CARE India 2011 [38] www.careindia.org
CARE Indonesia * 2017
CARE International Japan 1987 [23] www.careintjp.org
CARE Morocco * 2017
CARE Nederland 2001 [28] [39] www.carenederland.org
CARE Norge 1980 [17] www.care.no
CARE Österreich 1986 [20] www.care.at
CARE Peru 2012 [3] www.care.org.pe
Raks Thai Foundation (CARE Thailand) 2003 [29] www.raksthai.org
CARE International UK 1985 [19] www.careinternational.org.uk
CARE USA (founding member: originally simply CARE) 1945 [5] www.care.org

Affiliate members are marked with an asterisk (*)

Programming scope

In 2016 CARE was active in the following countries: [3]

Region Countries where CARE was active in 2014
Asia and the Pacific Afghanistan , Australia, Fiji, Nepal , Bangladesh , Pakistan , Cambodia , New Guinea Papua , Philippines , India , Sri Lanka , Indonesia , Thailand , Laos , Timor-Leste , Japan, Vanuatu , Myanmar , Vietnam
East and Central Africa Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda
Latin America Bolivia , Guatemala , Brazil , Dominican Republic, Haiti , Cuba , Honduras , Ecuador , Nicaragua , El Salvador , Honduras , Panama, Peru , Mexico
Middle East, North Africa and Europe Albania, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, France, Georgia, Germany, Iraq, Jordan, Kosovo, Lebanon, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Montenegro, Morocco, Netherlands, Norway, Romania , Serbia, Switzerland, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, West Bank and Gaza, and Yemen.
North America Canada and the United States of America.
Southern Africa Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe
West Africa Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo.

A total of 962 development and humanitarian aid projects were carried out in these countries, with 80,120,323 million people directly reached. The breakdown by region was as follows: [3]

CARE Projects by Region
Region Direct Participants Projects
East & Central Africa 9086533 200
Latin America & Caribbean 965.705 93
Middle East, North Africa & Europe 3616754 194
Asia & the Pacific 56738386 329
Southern Africa 4640456 80
West Africa 5072468 137

For the fiscal year 2016, CARE reported a budget of more than 574 million Euros and a staff of 9,175 (94% of them local citizens of the country where they work). [3]

Emergency response

CARE emergency relief supports as well as prevention, preparedness, and recovery programs. In 2016, CARE reportedly reached more than 7.2 million people through its humanitarian response.Care’s core sectors for Food Security, Shelter, WASH and Sexual & Reproductive Health. CARE is a signatory of major international humanitarian standards and codes of conduct. The Code of Conduct for the International Red Cross and Red CrescentMovement and NGOs in Disaster Relief, the Sphere Standards, and the Humanitarian Accountability Partnership (HAP) principles and standards.

Networks and partnerships

CARE is a signataires to The Following standards of humanitarian response: the Code of Conduct for The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and NGOs in Disaster Relief, [40] the Sphere standards, [41] and the Core Humanitarian Standard [42] As well, CARE is a member of a number of networks aiming to Improve the quality and coordination of humanitarian aid: The Emergency Capacity Building Project (ECB) [43] The Consortium of British Humanitarian Agencies (CBHA), [44] the Active Learning Network for Accountability and Performance in Humanitarian Action (ALNAP), [45] theSteering Committee for Humanitarian Response (SHCR), [46] International Council for Voluntary Agencies (ICVA), [47] and the INGO Accountability Charter. [48] CARE also regularly engages in joint advocacy campaigns with other major NGOs. The Global Campaign for Climate Change Action is one example. [49]

References

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  23. ^ Jump up to:b [1] Archived February 8, 2011 at the Wayback Machine .
  24. ^ Jump up to:b Hamadziripi, A. (2008). “Village Savings and Loans Associations in Niger: Mata Masu Dubara Model of Remote Outreach” (PDF) . COADY International Institute, St. Francis Xavier University.
  25. Jump up^ Anyango E, Esipisu E, Opoku L, S Johnson, Malkamaki M, Musoke C (2007). “Village Savings and Loan Associations – Experience from Zanzibar.”Small Enterprise Development, 18: 1 p11-24 (14). Commissioned by DFID & Decentralized Financial Services ” (PDF) Ruralfinance.org.
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  27. Jump up^ H Allen, Panetta D (2010). “Savings Groups: What Are They?” (PDF) . The SEEP Network . Sswm.info.
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  29. ^ Jump up to:b “Thailand” . CARE . Retrieved June 11, 2014 .
  30. Jump up^ Dugger, C. (August 16, 2007). “CARE Turns Down Federal Funds for Food Aid” . New York Times .
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  42. Jump up^ https://corehumanitarianstandard.org/
  43. Jump up^ “The Emergency Capacity Building Project (ECB)” . Ecbproject.org . Retrieved June 11, 2014 .
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  48. Jump up^ “INGO Accountability” .
  49. Jump up^ “Partners” TckTckTck | Global Call for Climate Action . Gc-ca.org . Retrieved June 11, 2014 .

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