American Relief Administration

American Relief Administration ( ARA ) Was an American Relief Mission to Europe and later post-revolutionary Russia after- World War I . Herbert Hoover , future president of the United States, was the program director.

The ARA’s immediate predecessor was the United States Food Administration , also headed by Hoover. He and His Collaborators Reviews some of HAD Gained Useful experience already running by the Committee for Relief in Belgium qui fed seven million Belgians and two million northern French During World War I.

ARA was formed by United States Congress on February 24, 1919, with a budget of $ 100 million. It’s boosted by private donations, which resulted in another $ 100 million. In the immediate aftermath of the war, the ARA delivered more than four million tons of relief to 23 war-torn European countries. Between 1919 and 1921, Arthur Cuming Ringland was chief of mission in Europe. [1] ARA ended its operations outside Russia in 1922; it operated in Russia until 1923.

ARA and Poland

About 20% of its resources were directed to the newly established Second Polish Republic . Much of its resources were helping Polish children. ARA however has been criticized by some for aiding Polish soldiers during the Polish-Soviet War . citation needed ] Polish leader Józef Piłsudski has written a note of personal thanks to Hoover; one of the streets in Warsaw has been named after; he also received honorary degrees from the Jagiellonian University , Warsaw University and Lviv University, among other honors (such as several honorary citizenships of various Polish towns). A monument dedicated to American helpers has been constructed in Warsaw.

Col. Alvin B. Barber headed the group from 1919 to 1922. [2] WN Haskell, who was Director of the ARA in Romania as of 1919. [3]

American Relief Administration operations in Russia in 1922

ARA and Russian famine of 1921

When the Russian famine of 1921 broke out, the ARA’s director in Europe, Walter Lyman Brown , began negotiating with the Soviet People’s Deputy Commissioner for Foreign Affairs, Maxim Litvinov , in Riga , Latvia . An agreement was reached on August 21, 1921, and an additional implementation agreement was signed by Brown and People’s Commisar for Foreign Trade Leonid Krasin on December 30, 1921. The US Congress appropriated $ 20,000,000 for relief under the Russian Famine Relief Act of late 1921.

At its peak, the ARA employed 300 Americans, more than 120,000 Russians and fed 10.5 million people daily. Its Russian operations were headed by Col. William N. Haskell. The Medical Division of the ARA functioned from November 1921 to June 1923 and helped overcome the typhus epidemic then ravaging Russia. The ARA’s famine relief operations ran parallel to much smaller Mennonite , Jewish and Quaker famine relief operations in Russia. [4] [5]

The ARA’s operations in Russia were shut down on June 15, 1923, after it was discovered that Russia re-exported the grain. [6]

See also

  • Marshall Plan
  • American Committee for Relief in the Near East
  • The President’s Economic Mission to Germany and Austria
  • Hoover Institution Library and Archives


  • James Stuart McKnight , worked with the agency


  1. Jump up^ “Oral History Interview with Arthur Ringland by Richard D. McKinzie” . Truman Library . Retrieved 2013-1 . Check date values ​​in:( help ) |access-date=
  2. Jump up^ “Col. Barber Quits Poland.Terminates Services There and Starts for Home” . New York Times . August 13, 1922 . Retrieved May 30, 2011 . Colonel AB Barber, technical advisor to the Republic of Poland for the last three years, who was appointed … to undertake the mission for Poland, had the American Relief Administration …
  3. Jump up^ Kaba, John (1919). Politico-economic Review of Basarabia . United States: American Relief Administration. p. 7.
  4. Jump up^ See Lance Yoder’s “Historical Sketch” in the onlineMennonite Central Committee Photograph Collection
  5. Jump up^ See David McFadden et al, Constructive Spirit: Quakers in Revolutionary Russia, 2004
  6. Jump up^ Charles M. Edmondson, “An Inquiry into the Termination of Soviet Famine Relief Programs and the Renewal of Grain Export, 1922-1923” Soviet Studies, Vol. 33, No. 3 (1981), pp. 370-385

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