Evidence Aid

Evidence Aid is an international platform That Was FORMED out of the need to deliver time sensitive access to systematic reviews for use in the event of disasters and other humanitarian emergencies. The method of using systematic reviews (a collection of available evidence is Any Given topic) is to Provide evidence for use by policy makers, clinicians, regulators, and Even the general public benefit Who thesis When materials are easy to Understand and are accessible. [1] The vision of Evidence Aid is to create and Satisfy year Increasing demand for evidence to Improve the impact of humanitarian aid by stimulating the use of an evidence-based approach. Evidence Aid was founded in 2004. It is currently being drafted by the Cochrane Collaborationand Queens University Belfast . Evidence Aid was established by several members of the International Cochrane Collaboration following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami. Evidence Was FORMED Aid to Provide systematic reviews on the effects of interventions and activities of relevance prior to, and in the course of DURING THE aftermath of disasters or other humanitarian emergencies, in order to Improve health-related outcomes; Their aim is to work with Those Who need and use this evidence (Those prepaid for and Responding to disasters and humanitarian emergencies – policy-makers, guideline developers, trainers, as well as aid agencies and independent consultants), as well as working with Researchers and publishers to facilitate open access to information on humanitarian emergencies and disasters. Evidence Aid works in cooperation with other organisms Including Public Health England; Red Cross Flanders, International Rescue Committee; Centers for Disease Control ; Center for Evidence-Based Medicine ; and the University of Oxford .

Purpose

Evidence Aid is designed to increase the effectiveness of the evidence-based approach.

Evidence Aid collates knowledge of a network of resources for decision-makers. What does it matter, which need not work, which need more research, and which, no matter how well meaning, might be harmful. Those in need have the right to be effective and not harmful. With an increasing demand for “value for money”, proof of impact and effectiveness in the provision of humanitarian aid is essential to ensure that decisions and activities are evidence-based. They keep this information up to date when it is possible to provide services, planning groups and first responders , disasters , humanitarian crisesor major healthcare emergencies. [2]

The objectives of Evidence Aid are:

  • Establish and increase an evidence-based approach to humanitarian action
  • Uphold and promote the value of evidence in sectors
  • Identify the gaps in evidence for humanitarian aid
  • Raise the capacity and commitment of those who guide the humanitarian sector to implement an evidence-based approach

Evidence Aid aussi Provides collections of evidence qui are topic specific, Such As collections for Ebola, the Health of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Europe and windstorms Earthquakes. These collections contain evidence-based guidelines, randomized controlled trials, and other useful information.

Resources

Team

Evidence Aid is based on the Center for Evidence-Based Medicine (Oxford, UK) and also has a desk in Cochrane (London, UK). The core team of four are based in two different locations. Mike Clarke, who is now the Chair of the Board of Trustees and Research Director, is a Professor at Queen’s University and has position at the Center for Global Health, Trinity College Dublin. Jeroen Jansen, Evidence Aid’s first Director, is based in London and Oxford overseeing the day-to-day management and operations of Evidence Aid, and Claire Allen, Operations Manager, who works from home in Weymouth, UK, channels the integration with the world in the most vulnerable and vulnerable countries. They are supported by Jane Higgins, Office Administrator part-time, based in Oxford, UK. The Impact of Evidence Aid is currently undergoing impact evaluation by Dominic Mellon, a Public Health Specialty Registrar based in Bristol, UK, as part of a PhD research project supervised by Mike Clarke at Queen’s.

In addition to the core team, Evidence Aid is supported by volunteers who work in various aspects of public health, humanitarian relief, and systematic reviews, where they collaborate from multiple locations around the world. Evidence helps volunteers who are self-motivated and can be flexible about the tasks assigned to them. Evidence Aid, a Charity, registered with the Charity Commission in the UK also with the Board of Trustees including Professor Mike Clarke (Chair), Dr. Phil Davies, Lady Deborah Dixon (Treasurer), Mr. Michael Stone, and Mrs. Sue Wolstenholme.

Special Resources

Evidence Aid, a major source of health care, and major health emergencies, in a single online resource [3]where they are available to anyone. Though information on best practice and low-cost interventions may be known in the medical, scientific or academic communities, this information may not be available or easily found by communities or countries in crisis. Evidence Aid and its volunteers search the literature identifying the evidence and the information they provide with the information they provide. facing who who are experiencing humanitarian crises. The organization then uploads them to the searchable resource page where they are offered for the use of all. Additional resources are identified as identified. For example, “Landslides:[4] was made available for free for Evidence Aid.

Separately, Evidence Aid has partnered with Cochrane to co-ordinate and administer special collections covering: flooding and poor water sanitation; earthquakes; burns; and posttraumatic stress disorder . [3] The Cochrane Collaboration is involved in the production of these collections and is housed on The Cochrane Library . [3]

Urgent response

Evidence Aid is able to provide a response to disasters and humanitarian emergencies

  • Through its resources, it provides an urgent response to the needs of the future, during and after the event. Prior to the disaster, During and in the short-term partner after the event, Evidence Aid can bundle together very brief summaries of the Findings of systematic reviews of relevant to, for example, the impact of windstorms DEPENDING on the kind of the event being white Responded to.
  • Evidence helps to provide a context-specific resource for the future. This is critical because it will be very different and the needs of the people can change over time and context. It is possible to continue to learn from each other in order to meet the needs of the community. As information about what works best is shared with the resources of the disaster and the impact of a disaster. For an example, see the response to Ebola and the European migrant crisis .
  • Gathering information about the need for evidence and the need for meta-up-to-date reporting. Systematic Reviews are identified and included in the Evidence Aid resources. Evidence Aid Works with Volunteers and Analysts: A Review of Evidence for Decision-Making and Decision-Making.

Financial support

In addition to core staff and volunteer support, Evidence Aid HAS-been traditionally financement by philanthropic organizations Including, but not restricted to the McCall MacBain Foundation, [5] the C & A Foundation, Wiley , and the Unorthodox Prize. [6] Evidence helps to provide optimal evidence that is location specific. [7]

Policy setting

Evidence Aid has developed its recommendations on humanitarian issues. [8]

Evidence Aid is awarded by the International Initiative for Impact Evaluation (3ie) for a scoping study, “What is the evidence and what is required, in humanitarian assistance?” in 2014. This report was published in the 2004 tsunami. The aim of the study is to provide an independent analysis of the evidence base of assessments in humanitarian assistance. It identifies areas where there are key gaps and where is most importantly important. Evidence Aid worked with 3ie, the Karolinska Institutet , and Monash University to develop a working paper . The first scoping paper is “What is available and what is required in humanitarian assistance? ” [9]

The scope of this research goes beyond the question of impact evaluation, key recommendations were made to move the provision of evidence forward in the sector, including:

  • The case for evidence: agreement from policy makers on the need for an evidence base;
  • Priorities for evidence: a suggested framework;
  • Improved accessibility to evidence: through a one-stop portal and better classification; and
  • Common guidelines and standards: through templates and standards for data collection. [10] Medical Rehabilitation in Natural Disasters: A Systematic Review [11] can be managed in the course of a natural disaster

Evidence helps people, partners, and contributors to achieve their goals of providing services to people with disabilities and to helping them improve their lives. human errors in disaster management Following disasters , humanitarian crises , and major healthcare emergencies.

Setting priorities

Evidence Aid helped set priorities for the Humanitarian Evidence Program by the identification and prioritization of themes to meet the needs of the sector for health outcomes, this strategy is one way they can work with communities to ascertain what evidence is needed . [12] This exercise is being co-ordinated by the Feinstein International Center at Tufts University and Oxfam . [13]

International aid contributions

In support of this mission, Evidence Aid has undertaken the following activities:

  • One of Evidence Aid’s first projects was to inform psychiatrists and psychotherapists responding to the Indian Ocean tsunami that counselors should not use ‘debriefing brief’ (a single-session counseling service designed to prevent psychological trauma ) as a way of preventing PTSD , given Cochrane Review evidence that this intervention is not effective, and, if anything, may be harmful. [14] These decisions have been made to improve the health of the population.
  • Within 24 hours of the 2010 Haiti earthquake , Evidence Aid Provided the World Health Organization (WHO) with a comprehensive list of effective and efficient interventions for wound management, mental health, and infectious diseases. Evidence Aid worked with the WHO again in late 2010 to identify those who could assist with the widespread floods in Pakistan .
  • On the day of the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami in March 2011, Evidence Aid provided by the Cochrane Library. Evidence Aid has been approached by the WHO to assist with the drafting of new public health guidelines for large-scale radiation emergencies. [15]
  • Following Typhoon Haiyan in 2013, Evidence Aid packaged together in a new set of resources within 48 hours, providing answers in the Philippines. The link to the resources of the United Nations and WHO responses. Evidence helps to provide effective care in the aftermath of tragedy. [16] [17]
  • Evidence for Ebola outbreak in West Africa in the latter half of 2014. Evidence for a response to Ebola outbreak in West Africa. falling to Ebola. [18]
  • Wiley-Blackwell along with Cochrane and working with Evidence Aid, published resources and a call for disaster relief collaboration on the Nepal Earthquake Evidence Aid page. The National Library of Medicine has partnered with publishers to deliver to major biomedical publications for healthcare professionals responding to the earthquake in Nepal. Access is available at http://eai.nlm.nih.gov/
  • In 2016, Evidence Aid partnered with Cochrane and MSF to respond to the European migrant crisis by collating information for a titled collection of the Health of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Europe. Cochrane also collated their own reviews which resides alongside the Collection.
  • A delicate concern for consideration and balance in the field of human rights and financial aid. Three recent studies explores the effects of unconditional cash transfers for assistance in health care. [19] The studies found that this is an early warning, is additional, high-quality evidence is needed to inform best practice and policy for unconditional cash transfers in terms of timing and distribution.
  • Malaria in endemic countries is a threat in disasters as stagnant water and crowded people in temporary housing can increase malaria risk. Evidence Aid provides a free collection of references and evidence-based guidance on how to treat malaria and control malaria in various geographical areas, various populations and in different conditions

Raising awareness

Evidence Aid in the field of international relations in Oxford in 2011 with the Center for Evidence-Based Medicine, Brussels in 2012 with the Belgian Red Cross-Flanders, at which Herman van Rompuy , the President of The European Council in 2012 said “Evidence Aid has provided governments, agencies, NGOs, and individuals with the most reliable information in order to take the right choices in difficult circumstances … the work is important for mankind”, and a priority setting meeting in London in 2013. In addition, and in partnership with the South Asian Cochrane Center, Evidence Aid offered its third conference in 2014 in Hyderabad, India – Indian Ocean TsunamiFitting for the Founding of Evidence Aid. Evidence Aid works with a number of organizations in different capacities. [20] Caroline Fiennes, a blogger at Third Sector , wrote about using humanitarian crises in a post, “In the Decade of the Asian Tsunami, We’re Marking the Evidence with Far Better Effect.” [21]

World hunger

In low and middle-income countries, the results of this study have been found to be favorable in recent years, and haemoglobin . Food supplementation resulted in positive impacts on psycho-motor development. However, on mental development was mixed. Disasters, war and famine, increased risk for food shortages, and decreased family size in the aftermath and in the aftermath of vulnerable populations.

MalnutritionContributed by: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb. A cochrane systematic review pointed out that the evidence of the effectiveness of nutrition interventions for young children is fundamentally important. The Evidence Aid is a summary of the points of contenling news about the treatment of children in the home when food is scarce. The review found food was commonly redistributed within the family; when feeding was home-delivered, children benefited from only 36% of the energy given in the supplement. However, when the supplementary food was given or the feeding of compounds, leakage was reduced; children took in 85% of the energy provided in the supplement. Supplementary food was more effective for younger children (under two years old) and for those who were poorer or less well-nourished. Quality supervision within feeding programs was found to result in a greater proportion of daily food for energy. These discrepancies were less common in high-income countries, where both studies found no benefits for growth.[22]

Refugee resettlement

The arrival in a country is not always the refuge of the displaced persons. During the passage they are facing the challenges of substandard shelter and sanitation, and dangerously long waits for food and water through treacherous weather and with disease ridden companions. Many of the children will witness the death, abuse and torture of fellow travelers and family members. This leaves The Refugees vulnerable to mental health disordersIncluding PTSD and depression , vaccine-preventable disease , skin disease Such As Impetigo , Scabies and Cellulitis , Tuberculosis , snakeand insect bite, malaria and they may also be exposed to violence and sexual abuse .

This presents many challenges to the host country, and is likely to be common to their population, and the refugees are unable to communicate with them. Many displaced persons fear forced repatriation or detention and They Are Unable to navigate the bureaucracyaround the local or national health care culture. This is a public health issue. The pregnant women may have had their care and the conflict and persecution of their mental health. Evidence Aid to assist regulators, clinicians, and organizations to increase the ability of hospitals to assist refugees. This initiative is a collaboration between Cochrane , Wiley , Kevin Pottie, Leo Ho and Evidence Aid and incorporates the contributions of many volunteers and experts in health.

Useful Guidelines

  • Evidence-based clinical guidelines for immigrants and refugees (Canada)
  • Evidence-Based Preventative Care Checklist for New Immigrants and Refugees (CCSIR)
  • Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases. Diagnosis, management and prevention of infections
  • Infectious Disease Assessment for Migrants (Irish guidelines)
  • C enters for Disease Control and Prevention . Guidelines for pre-departure and post-arrival medical screening and treatment of US-bound refugees
  • Public Health England – GOV.UK – Migrant health guide: countries A to Z
  • Public Health England – GOV.UK – Communicable Diseases: Migrant Health Guide
  • Public Health England – GOV.UK – Non-communicable health concerns: migrant health guide

Cochrane Podcasts

Cochrane does a series of podcasts or migrates health that are useful for health care professionals and the public

Systematic Reviews

  • Clark, RC; Mytton, J (Dec 2007). “Estimating infectious disease in UK asylum seekers and refugees: a systematic review of prevalence studies”. Journal of Public Health . 29 (4): 420-428. doi : 10.1093 / pubmed / fdm063 .
  • Fazel M, Wheeler J., Danesh J. Prevalence of serious mental disorder in 7000 refugees resettled in western countries: a systematic review. Lancet 2005 Apr 9-15; 365 (9467): 1309-1314 Full Access via Evidence Aid
  • Hadgkiss EJ, Renzaho AMN. The physical health status, service utilization and barriers to asylum seekers residing in the community: a systematic review of the literature. Australian Health Review 2014 May; 38 (2): 142-159 (open access)
  • Kalt, A; Hossain, M .; Kiss, L; Zimmerman, C (Mar 2013). “Asylum seekers, violence and health: a systematic review of research in high-income host countries”. Am J Public Health . 103 (3): e30-42. doi : 10.2105 / AJPH.2012.301136 .
  • M. Fazel, R. Reed, C. Panter-Brick, A. Stein. The Lancet 2011 379 (9812): 266-282. Full Access via Evidence Aid
  • R. Reed, M. Fazel, L. Jones, C. Panter-Brick, A. Stein. The Lancet 2011 379 (9812): 250-265. The Lancet 2011 379 (9812): Risk and protective factors. Full Access via Evidence Aid

Additional Collections for Evidence Informed Resettlement

  1. Wiley – Article / Book Collection and Podcasts on Refugees and Migration
  2. PLOS Collection – Migration & Health
  3. European Center for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) – Migrant Health
  4. Cochrane Methods Equity – Migrant Health Subgroup of the Campbell and Cochrane Equity Methods Group
  5. Canadian Medical Association Journal – Refugee Health (collection)
  6. Canadian Medical Association Journal – Canadian Guidelines for Immigrant Health Collection

Awarded “Unorthodox Prize 2013”

In September 2013, Evidence Aid received the “Unorthodox Prize 2013”. It was one of 250 international submissions. [23] Billions of dollars are spent annually on international humanitarian responses. There is also a movement to professionalize the field. Evidence Aid plays a role in this by: providing this information in an easily accessible format to decision makers and front-line relief workers. Evidence Aid bases their resources on epidemiological and evidence-based information (via systematic reviews) to meet the needs of the target population. [24]

References

  1. Jump up^ Oxman, A; Lavis, L; Fretheim, A (2007). “Use of evidence in WHO recommendations”. The Lancet . 369 (9576): 1883-9. doi : 10.1016 / S0140-6736 (07) 60675-8 . PMID  17493676 .
  2. Jump up^ Kayabu, B; Clarke, M (22 February 2013). “Preliminary report of a needs assessment survey” . PLOS Currents: Disasters . 5 : pii: ecurrents.dis.ed42382881b3bf79478ad503be4693ea. doi : 10.1371 / currents.dis.ed42382881b3bf79478ad503be4693ea . PMC  3556506  . PMID  23378935 .
  3. ^ Jump up to:c “Resources” . Evidence Aid .
  4. Jump up^ Koenig, Kristi; Carl H. Schultz, Carl; Kennedy, Iain; Petley, David; Murray, Virginia (28 April 2015). Landslides: A draft chapter from the upcoming book Koenig and Schultz ‘s Disaster Medicine: Comprehensive Principles and Practice (PDF) (2nd ed.) . Retrieved 16 June 2015 .
  5. Jump up^ “McCall MacBain Foundation” .
  6. Jump up^ “The Unorthodox Prize” .
  7. Jump up^ Gardin, M; Clarke, M .; Allen, C; Kayabu, B; et al. (2014). “Optimal evidence in difficult settings: Improving health intentions and decision making in disasters” . PLOS Medicine . 11 : e1001632. doi : 10.1371 / journal.pmed.1001632 . PMC  3995669  . PMID  24755530 .
  8. Jump up^ Evidence Aid Priority Setting Group (2013). “Prioritization of themes and research questions for health outcomes in natural disasters, humanitarian crises or other major healthcare emergencies” . PLOS Currents: Disasters . 5 : pii: ecurrents.dis.c9c4f4db9887633409182d2864b20c31. doi : 10.1371 / currents.dis.c9c4f4db9887633409182d2864b20c31 . PMC  3805831  . PMID  24162731 .
  9. Jump up^ Clarke, M; Allen, C; Archer, F; Wong, D; Eriksson, A; Puri, J (December 2014). “What is is available and what is required, in humanitarian assistance? 3ie Scoping Paper” (PDF) . International Initiative for Impact Evaluation (3ie) . . Retrieved 16 June 2015 .
  10. Jump up^ Puri, J; Aladysheva, A; Iversen, V; Ghorpade, Y; et al. (2014). “What methods can be used in evaluations of humanitarian assistance?” (PDF). New Delhi: International Initiative for Impact Evaluation (3rd) . Retrieved 7 April 2015 .
  11. Jump up^ Khan, Fary; Amatya, Bhasker; Gosney, James; Farooq Rathore, Farooq; Frederick Burkle Jr, Frederick (19 February 2015). “Medical Rehabilitation in Natural Disasters: A Systematic Review” . Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation . 96 : 1709-1727. doi : 10.1016 / j.apmr.2015.02.007 . Retrieved 16 June 2015 .
  12. Jump up^ Ott, E; Krystalli, RC; Stites, E; Timmins, N; et al. (February 6, 2015). “Humanitarian Evidence Synthesis and Communication Program: Abridged Inception Report” (PDF) . Oxfam in partnership with the Feinstein International Center . Retrieved 7 April 2015 .
  13. Jump up^ Vandekerckhove, P; Clarke, M .; De Buck, E; Allen, C (2013). “Prioritizing evidence in disaster aid”. Disaster medicine and Public Health Preparedness (7): 593-6.
  14. Jump up^ Rose, S; Bisson, J; Churchill, R; Wesseley, S (2002). “Psychological debriefing for preventing post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)” . The Cochrane Library (2): CD000560. doi : 10.1002 / 14651858.CD000560 . PMID  12076399 . Retrieved 9 April 2015 .
  15. Jump up^ Heneghan, Carl (2011). “Evidence Aid: Knowledge saves lives after natural disasters” . Guardian . Retrieved 9 April 2015 .
  16. Jump up^ HHS. “Disaster Information Management Relief Center” . US Department of Health and Human Services . National Library of Medicine . Retrieved 9 April 2015 .
  17. Jump up^ “Philippines typhoon travel health advice” . Public Health England . Public Health England . Retrieved 9 April 2015 .
  18. Jump up^ Price, Amy (March 26, 2014). “Evidence Aid Pays it Forward” . ThinkWell . The International Network for Knowledge about Wellbeing . Retrieved 5 April 2015 .
  19. Jump up^ Pega, F; LIU, S; Walter, S (2015). “Unconditional cash transfers for assistance in humanitarian disasters: the effects of health services and health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries” . The Cochrane Library . 9 . doi : 10.1002 / 14651858.CD011247.pub2 . Retrieved 19 March 2016 .
  20. Jump up^ Allen, C (2014). “A resource for those preparing for and responding to natural disasters, humanitarian crises, and major healthcare emergencies”. Journal of Evidence Based Medicine . 7 : 234-7. doi :10.1111 / jebm.12127 .
  21. Jump up^ Fiennes, C. “In the aftermath of the Asian tsunami, we’re marshaling the evidence with far better effect” . Third Sector . Retrieved 2014 . Check date values ​​in:( help ) |access-date=
  22. Jump up^ Kristjansson, E; Francis, DK; Liberato, S; Benkhalti Jandu, M; et al. (2015). “Food supplementation for the physical and psychosocial health of socio-economically disadvantaged children aged three to five years”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD009924. doi : 10.1002 / 14651858.CD009924.pub2 .
  23. Jump up^ “2013 Unorthodox Prize goes to Evidence Aid” (Press release). Wiley. September 13, 2013 . Retrieved 7 April 2015 .
  24. Jump up^ Clarke, M; Baille, K; Connolly, S; Murray, L (2013). “Clinical epidemiology and evidence-based medicine”. In Yarnell, J; O’Reilly, D.Epidemiology and Disease Prevention: A Global Approach (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press . pp. 67-86.

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